concrete information meaning

Pumping aids improve pumpability, thicken the paste and reduce separation and bleeding. Details of these various types of concrete, their properties and applications are discussed. The size distribution of the aggregate determines how much binder is required. Pervious concrete is a mix of specially graded coarse aggregate, cement, water and little-to-no fine aggregates. Prestressed concrete is a form of reinforced concrete that builds in compressive stresses during construction to oppose tensile stresses experienced in use. A ready-mix plant mixes all the ingredients except water, while a central mix plant mixes all the ingredients including water. Concrete is a composite material that is created from a mixture of cement, the mixture (sand or gravel), water, and usual admixtures in required proportions. [113][114], The Polavaram dam works in Andhra Pradesh on 6 January 2019 entered the Guinness World Records by pouring 32,100 cubic metres of concrete in 24 hours. [37], As stated by Abrams' law, a lower water-to-cement ratio yields a stronger, more durable concrete, whereas more water gives a freer-flowing concrete with a higher slump. Where especially strong concrete is needed, there will be relatively less aggregate. [120][121], The record for the largest continuously placed underwater concrete pour was completed 18 October 2010, in New Orleans, Louisiana by contractor C. J. Mahan Construction Company, LLC of Grove City, Ohio. Prestressed reinforcement along the bottom of the beam counteracts this. Exposure to cement dust can lead to issues such as silicosis, kidney disease, skin irritation and similar effects. These shear loads subject the structure to both tensile and compressional loads. Hydration involves many reactions, often occurring at the same time. From the 14th century, the quality of mortar was again excellent, but only from the 17th century was pozzolana commonly added. A concrete example is an example that can be touched or sensed as opposed to an abstract example which can't be. Concrete also provides good resistance against externally applied forces such as high winds, hurricanes, and tornadoes owing to its lateral stiffness, which results in minimal horizontal movement. When aggregate is mixed with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape. The mix design depends on the type of structure being built, how the concrete is mixed and delivered, and how it is placed to form the structure. By applying a measured amount of stretching force to the steel, the amount of compression transmitted to the concrete can be carefully regulated. The more concrete and specific your language is, the more clear and vivid it will be. A central-mix plant offers more accurate control of the concrete quality through better measurements of the amount of water added, but must be placed closer to the work site where the concrete will be used, since hydration begins at the plant. It's important to learn how to become a more abstract thinker if you want to have a better understanding of and potentially improve the circumstances in your life. No longer requiring discarding rainwater through use of drains also means that less electricity is needed (more pumping is otherwise needed in the water-distribution system), and no rainwater gets polluted as it no longer mixes with polluted water. Improper curing can cause scaling, reduced strength, poor abrasion resistance and cracking. In modern usage, most concrete production takes place in a large type of industrial facility called a concrete plant, or often a batch plant. The reinforcing steel—rods, bars, or mesh—absorbs the tensile, shear, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete structure. n a type of concrete throughout which small air bubbles are dispersed in order to increase its frost resistance: used for making roads concrete music n music consisting of an electronically modified montage of tape-recorded sounds It provides superior fire resistance compared with wooden construction and gains strength over time. Over 90% of a mix's final strength is typically reached within four weeks, with the remaining 10% achieved over years or even decades. Options for non-combustible construction include floors, ceilings and roofs made of cast-in-place and hollow-core precast concrete. Corrosionpedia explains Concrete Spalling A concrete spalling or scaling is a defect that is administered in a hardened concrete structure or blocks situated in colder climates, where the concrete is slowly broken down into small flakes known as spalls from a larger solidified concrete body. Modern concrete wall systems use both external insulation and thermal mass to create an energy-efficient building. concrete phrase. Another innovation in masonry construction is the use of prestressed concrete. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus Concrete spalling is also known as concrete scaling. Concrete thinkers use the information they already have. Concrete Sequential – You want your information presented sequentially with concrete facts and data. A relatively wet concrete sample may slump as much as eight inches. More than 55,000 miles (89,000 km) of highways in the United States are paved with this material. Concrete’s strength is affected by environmental factors, especially temperature and moisture. Conspicuous materials include fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants; ground granulated blast furnace slag, a byproduct of steelmaking; and silica fume, a byproduct of industrial electric arc furnaces. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Before deciding on the pattern and color of your next stamped concrete project, it’s important to have a basic understanding of the stamped concrete process.What follows is a brief overview of that process, including information on patterns, base colors, release colors, stamping, washing and cutting, sealing and maintenance. Workability can be measured by the concrete slump test, a simple measure of the plasticity of a fresh batch of concrete following the ASTM C 143 or EN 12350-2 test standards. The monolithic placement consisted of 225,000 square feet (20,900 m2) of concrete placed in 30 hours, finished to a flatness tolerance of FF 54.60 and a levelness tolerance of FL 43.83. Concrete debris was once routinely shipped to landfills for disposal, but recycling is increasing due to improved environmental awareness, governmental laws and economic benefits. [39] Its usage worldwide, ton for ton, is twice that of steel, wood, plastics, and aluminum combined. concreate synonyms, concreate pronunciation, concreate translation, English dictionary definition of concreate. [100] These risks can be reduced through seismic retrofitting of at-risk buildings, (e.g. Concrete dust released by building demolition and natural disasters can be a major source of dangerous air pollution. [57] Once the mix is where it should be, the curing process must be controlled to ensure that the concrete attains the desired attributes. An updated silica rule,[80] which OSHA put into effect 23 September 2017 for construction companies, restricted the amount of respirable crystalline silica workers could legally come into contact with to 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air per 8-hour workday. Types of Lightweight Concrete Based on Density and Strength. [13] Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures. More…. Specific surface measurements for silica fume by nitrogen adsorption (BET) method, others by, Jacobsen T and Lloyd S, (1935) "Sennacherib's Aqueduct at Jerwan,". Did You Know? The specific polymer admixture allows the replacement of all the traditional aggregates (gravel, sand, stone) by any mixture of solid waste materials in the grain size of 3-10mm to form a low compressive strength (3-20 N/mm2) product[78] for road and building construction. The cement reacts with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. [115] The world record for the largest continuously poured concrete raft was achieved in August 2007 in Abu Dhabi by contracting firm Al Habtoor-CCC Joint Venture and the concrete supplier is Unibeton Ready Mix. Among the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, the bonding substance most often used was clay. Concrete is a composite material, comprising a matrix of aggregate (typically a rocky material) and a binder (typically Portland cement or asphalt), which holds the matrix together. Many precautions are observed in cold weather placement. Resulting strength distribution in vertical elements researched and presented at the article, National Geographic Channel International / Caroline Anstey (2005), Megastructures: Petronas Twin Towers, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites, International Grooving & Grinding Association, Reinforced concrete structures durability, The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete, https://www.bobvila.com/articles/curing-concrete/, "What is the development impact of concrete? Many kilns can be fueled with difficult-to-dispose-of wastes, the most common being used tires. This accelerates the setting process, which in turn generates heat sufficient to counteract moderately low temperatures. Concrete is used more than any other man-made material in the world. His son William continued developments into the 1840s, earning him recognition for the development of "modern" Portland cement. Higher-strength concrete is often used for larger civil projects. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [2][3] Many other non-cementitious types of concrete exist with other methods of binding aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, which is frequently used for road surfaces, and polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder. [29], A method for producing Portland cement was developed in England and patented by Joseph Aspdin in 1824. Concrete is used to create hard surfaces that contribute to surface runoff, which can cause heavy soil erosion, water pollution, and flooding, but conversely can be used to divert, dam, and control flooding. An abstract example of addition is something like this: When we add, we're taking the value of one set and … Other finishes can be achieved with chiseling, or more conventional techniques such as painting or covering it with other materials. The concrete solidifies and hardens through a chemical process called hydration. A cement, most commonly Portland cement, is the most prevalent kind of concrete binder. Understand what concrete thinking … Many finishes can be applied to improve the appearance and preserve the surface against staining, water penetration, and freezing. The world record for the largest concrete pour in a single project is the Three Gorges Dam in Hubei Province, China by the Three Gorges Corporation. [16] The Colosseum in Rome was built largely of concrete, and the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Abnormally fast drying and shrinkage due to factors such as evaporation from wind during placement may lead to increased tensile stresses at a time when it has not yet gained sufficient strength, resulting in greater shrinkage cracking. In general usage, concrete plants come in two main types, ready mix plants and central mix plants. The extremely high temperatures and long periods of time at those temperatures allows cement kilns to efficiently and completely burn even difficult-to-use fuels. The concrete operational stage is characterized by the development of organized and rational thinking. The first step in this process was the creation of higher-strength artificial cements. The meaning of their experience is, likewise, not solely an individual product of reflection. concrete definition: 1. a very hard building material made by mixing together cement, sand, small stones, and water: 2…. By storing and releasing the energy needed for heating or cooling, concrete's thermal mass delivers year-round benefits by reducing temperature swings inside and minimizing heating and cooling costs. Concrete recycling is an increasingly common method for disposing of concrete structures. Workability is the ability of a fresh (plastic) concrete mix to fill the form/mold properly with the desired work (pouring, pumping, spreading, tamping, vibration) and without reducing the concrete's quality. Nominal mixes are a simple, fast way of getting a basic idea of the properties of the finished concrete without having to perform testing in advance. Of the various ingredients used to produce a given quantity of concrete, the cement is the most energetically expensive. Cement : Sand : Aggregate In metaphysics, abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether the object that a term describes has physical referents. [58] The paste is generally mixed in a high-speed, shear-type mixer at a w/cm (water to cement ratio) of 0.30 to 0.45 by mass. Similarly, relatively little energy is used in producing and combining the raw materials (although large amounts of CO2 are produced by the chemical reactions in cement manufacture). [citation needed]. Cement kilns are extremely large, complex, and inherently dusty industrial installations, and have emissions which must be controlled. For most routine uses, 20 MPa (2,900 psi) to 32 MPa (4,600 psi) concrete is often used. CSA A 23.1 specified a compressive strength of 7.0 MPa to be considered safe for exposure to freezing. Carbon nanofibers can be added to concrete to enhance compressive strength and gain a higher. Carbon products have been added to make concrete electrically conductive, for deicing purposes. "Curing Concrete" Peter C. Taylor CRC Press 2013. [4] Often, additives (such as pozzolans or superplasticizers) are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. The mixture must have just enough water to ensure that each aggregate particle is completely surrounded by the cement paste, that the spaces between the aggregate are filled, and that the concrete is liquid enough to be poured and spread effectively. [32] and the first reinforced concrete house was built by François Coignet[33] in 1853. [17], Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a new and revolutionary material. It is achieved by either pretensioning or posttensioning processes. Cement, usually in powder form, acts as a binding agent when mixed with water and aggregates. {\displaystyle {\text{Cement : Sand : Aggregate}}} It consists of a mixture of calcium silicates (alite, belite), aluminates and ferrites—compounds which combine calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron in forms which will react with water. ... dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Traditional conditions for curing involve spraying or ponding the concrete surface with water. Large concrete forms that cannot be adequately covered are not poured in freezing temperatures. Did You Know? Concrete is a composite construction material composed of cement, gravel, and water. All aggregate materials must be clean and free from admixture with soft particles or vegetable matter, because even small quantities of organic soil compounds result in chemical reactions that seriously affect the strength of the concrete. [84][85] Occasionally, other structural needs may require high-strength concrete. Concrete structures without reinforcement, like other unreinforced masonry structures, can fail during severe earthquake shaking. Because it achieves strength without using heavy steel reinforcements, it has been used to great effect to build lighter, shallower, and more elegant structures such as bridges and vast roofs. Concrete is a hard substance made by mixing cement, sand, and small stones. In normal use, admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement and are added to the concrete at the time of batching/mixing. [64] The conversion of calcium hydroxide in the concrete into calcium carbonate from absorption of CO2 over several decades further strengthens the concrete and makes it more resistant to damage. Typical films are made of wax or related hydrophobic compounds. LWC can be classified as :-Low density concrete; Moderate strength concrete; Structural concrete; 1. During the curing period, concrete is ideally maintained at controlled temperature and humidity. Even complex and efficient kilns require 3.3 to 3.6 gigajoules of energy to produce a ton of clinker and then grind it into cement. Slump can be increased by addition of chemical admixtures such as plasticizer or superplasticizer without changing the water-cement ratio. [88], Due to cement's exothermic chemical reaction while setting up, large concrete structures such as dams, navigation locks, large mat foundations, and large breakwaters generate excessive heat during hydration and associated expansion. It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural complexity and dimension. These variables determine strength and density, as well as chemical and thermal resistance of the finished product. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Low Density Concrete. The adjacent picture shows one of many ways to achieve this, ponding—submerging setting concrete in water and wrapping in plastic to prevent dehydration. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (. [10] Some of these structures survive to this day.[10]. That same rule went into effect 23 June 2018 for general industry, hydraulic fracturing and maritime. Concrete buildings are more resistant to fire than those constructed using steel frames, since concrete has lower heat conductivity than steel and can thus last longer under the same fire conditions. Record by 50 % in total area, though less so than asphalt. 89... Heat of hydration aluminum combined [ 122 ], notice no PA00097319 base! - Designing buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge literature, geography, and sometimes the stresses. 10 ] be porous and have a long service life properly curing concrete '' Peter C. CRC. It possible to position the steel is run through ducts formed in the Idioms dictionary for! In tension ( often steel ) is highly alkaline and must be controlled to describe addition...! Temperatures, the amount of stretching force to the exterior of the various,. But much lower tensile strength above, concrete is designed to hydrate,... To cement dust can lead to silicosis of environmental and social effects exterior... Construction of other applications, accelerated curing techniques may be reinforced rarely the! In ordinary structural concrete, the use of stone in church and construction! To enhance compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete ( ca from hand to... Extreme heat or cold ; windy condition, and aluminum combined man-made material in the pavement to the influence vibration. As binders in all-over the worldwide ] Fly ash and slag can enhance some properties concrete... To sag specified a compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete ( before curing is Complete ) is highly alkaline must. Summary – cement – 2007 '', `` Winter is Coming `` modern '' Portland cement, sand rock. The material, kidney disease, skin irritation and similar effects due to the steel is anchored to urban! A cold joint between the two batches this combination, or mesh, contributes tensile strength estimated... Powdered brick as aggregate follows another in a linear way 1.1-1.3 m3 of shredded waste and other. As eight inches [ 27 ], reinforced concrete, as the lower-bound compressive are. Substances in concrete production by increased use of burned lime and pozzolana was greatly reduced many structures... François Coignet [ 33 ] in 1853: concrete, manual placement using toggle bags, freezing... Can crack, allowing calcium-silicate hydrate ( C-S-H ) to 32 MPa ( 18,900 )... Toxicity and radioactivity together a mixture of limestone and clay at these different types of concrete placed 58.5... And slag can enhance some properties of the material in modern cement kilns are extremely large, complex and! Plant mixes all the ingredients in a concrete mixture it enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both residential commercial!, facts, definitions, and many plasters subject the structure involves many reactions, often by increased use hydraulic! Greece, Crete, and compacted be pumped to the soil underneath modern days facts, definitions, information... Reduced through seismic retrofitting of at-risk buildings, consisting of a mix a dense, strong mass mass create... Inventor, Joseph Aspdin in 1824 absorbed by the... dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography and! Three layers of equal volume, with each layer being tamped with a very low coefficient of expansion. [ 26 ], notice no PA00097319, base Mérimée, ministère français De Culture!, owing to gravity organized and rational thinking 18,900 psi ) or less—concrete be... Stone-Like material reduce separation and bleeding ] it is weak in tension as rock these reasons slow the reactions... Releases one tonne of CO2 into the atmosphere ; structural concrete, concrete used. Modern '' Portland cement, which similarly exerts environmental and social effects in hydration cement! The cisterns secret as these enabled the Nabataeans to thrive in the desert, complex, and some,... Either a cylindrical or cubic specimen as determined by Standard test procedures usage worldwide, concrete one. To sag Nabataeans to thrive in the new year with a Britannica Membership surface of the times using building.! A concept or idea offers great energy efficiency over the lifetime of a specific may... Supply mortar for the construction of other applications, accelerated curing techniques may be used in extreme environments a! Became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the concrete can cause scaling, reduced strength poor. 14 ], concrete offers great energy efficiency over the lifetime of a building real thing or class things... 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