dongria kondh tribe upsc

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nations. Under datarubati, older men help each other for a share of liquor. In this context, in 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 17 states and one Union Territory (UT), in the country (2011 census). Recently, labour cooperatives among tribal communities in Odisha were in the news. Dongria Kondh. In conclusion, both India and Saudi Arabia will continue to find it useful to cultivate each other — but India will have to press the Saudis harder on committing to the war against terror. Niyamgiri is an area of densely forested hills, deep gorges and cascading streams. India has had historically deep ties with Iran and External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj stopped over briefly in Teheran recently in the wake of the bombing in India and Iran’s Sistan and Baluchestan province. Important Points Need: Farming on the steep hill slopes requires more labour which a single family cannot provide. of the sacred undisturbed forests on top of the mountain, where the proposed mining lease area of the Lanjigarh bauxite mining lease is located. You can also find us on Twitter and Facebook. After the Pulwama attack, the follow-up measure to raise tariff duty on imports to 200% can again be trivial. km. Members of the village are also organised into specialised groups depending on the nature of the work. The Dongria have distinctive jewellery, tattoos and hairstyles. Instead, India should take advantage of any benefit that accrues from India’s economic relations with Saudi Arabia but should not pin much hope on Riyadh in the political-strategic sphere. It is important to note that Mr. Maduro blames the country’s dire situation (i.e Venezuela’s dire situation) on U.S. sanctions that have blocked the country from obtaining financing and have hobbled its oil industry. Location: They are located in the Niyamgiri hills. The Dongria women are also given equal status in the society in matters such as widow remarriage, possessing property without the interference of their husbands and sons. So would be the NTMs, if increased, as India’s imports from Pakistan are reasonably low at $0.488 billion. The concept of labour cooperatives is popular in almost all tribal communities in Odisha including the Dongria Kondh, Juanga, Lanjia Saura, Saura, Didayi, Paudi Bhuyan and Kandh. Why is it in News? Iran continues to exercise much influence in West Asia and can help shape events in Afghanistan by shoring up the Taliban against the U.S. Dongria Kondh. The ETC India project’s analysis shows that a system based on a high share of renewables can deliver cheaper electricity by 2030, even considering the additional costs of balancing the variability of renewables. Guaidó and his supporters argue that since the election was a sham, Venezuela doesn’t have a legitimate leader, and in such a context as president of the National Assembly, he could take power. The success story will end. To integrate renewables, we need the desirable kind of demand response, which doesn’t compromise with reliability. To be a Dongria Kondh is to farm the hills’ fertile slopes, harvest their produce, and worship the mountain god Niyam Raja and the hills he presides over, including the 4,000 metre Mountain of the Law, Niyam Dongar. It is amid the competing demands from West Asian powers for India to take sides that India might find it difficult to maintain a “balancing” approach even if it wanted to. Electricity demand and supply, on the other hand, must be balanced at every second at every location on the grid. MBS’s India visit is being measured against the statements made during his Pakistan visit, where he praised Islamabad for its fight against terrorism. As Pakistan’s relations with Iran deteriorate, it is likely to move further into the Saudi orbit. The Dongria Kondh have adopted a system of imparting cultural and traditional values to the adolescents and youths in their villages through exclusive youth dormitories. However, these challenges can be overcome. India’s defence and security partnership with Israel has already proven useful to its security and military modernisation drive. Although this approach has allowed India to eschew involvement in regional disputes and de-hyphenate relations with regional rivals including Iran, Israel and Saudi Arabia, the policy has also constrained India’s ability to press its geopolitical interests in the region. Although the simultaneous attacks that claimed the lives of 27 members of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps and 40 members of India’s Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) are likely to bring India and Iran closer together against Pakistan, it is doubtful that the occasion would generate much momentum in bilateral relations. In this context, in 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 17 states and one Union Territory (UT), in the country (2011 census). Members of the Kondhs, of the Munda ethnic group. Guaidó, 35, head of the Opposition-run Congress, has provided few details on the transport plan. Dongria Kandh Tribe | UPSC HEADLINES: Many hands ensure green fields for Odisha’s tribal villages WHY IN NEWS: Traditional systems of sharing work sustain communities. According to Captain Macpherson (1846), the word Kondh means” mountaineer”, derived from the Telugu word ko or ku, signifying a hill or mountain. Venezuelan soldiers may bar the way. European powers gave Mr. Maduro an ultimatum to announce fresh elections, which he rejected. This practice has large economic and social costs. Q4. These announcements and gestures would have been far more significant had it not been for the fact that MBS’s trip came on the heels of his visit to Pakistan just after the Pulwama attack. Experts opine that it can only be a pressure tactic and do little unless stringent actions are taken to stop informal trade that has been going on between the two countries for long. But the state-owned generators, hitherto resistant, need to be brought into the fold, and shoulder their fair share of responsibility for system balancing. This will disturb the ecology of the area. The socio-political governing and decision-making body of the Dongria Kondh community is also known as the Kutumba. The international trade in these turtles and their products is banned under CITES. At the centre of a dispute over mining rights in the area. Informal trade generally takes place due to the following reasons: ‘high tariff barriers or transportation costs, making it cost effective to smuggle goods in the country; It is also important to note that traders carry out informal trade between Pakistan and India through the exchange of goods at the border as well as through the personal baggage scheme’ through “green channel” facilities at international airports or railway stations. The tribes include the Dongria Kondh, Juanga, Lanjia Saura, Saura, Didayi, Paudi Bhuyan and Kandh. The Dongria Kondh tribe in India are struggling to defend their land against a mining company hell-bent on destroying their sacred mountain. The 8000 strong Dongria Kondh tribe have resided in the lush green environs of the Niyamgiri Mountains for generations. Many hands ensure green fields for Odisha’s tribal villages. The applications for regularization of residence under the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006 has been rejected. Venezuela has also been facing severe food and medicines shortages for months. Forest fire is a common hazard in forests. Thirdly, given cost constraints to gas and social opposition to hydro, the scale of these traditional balancing options may be limited in India. The jewellery used by Bonda,Dongria Kondh,Lanjia Saoura, Gadaba, Didayee, Bhottada, Ho, Munda, Bhunjia, Banjara tribes deserve special admiration. Nestled between an area of densely forested hills, deep gorges and cascading streams, reside the Dongria Kondh tribe. When Mr. Guaidó declared himself acting President, he may have hoped that he could win over at least sections of Venezuela’s armed forces. From an economic perspective, U.S. sanctions have turned Iran into an unreliable economic partner. According to an assessment by the World Bank submitted to the Central Water Commission the Ganga river basin could see crop failures rise three-fold and drinking water shortage can go up by as much as 39% in some States between now and 2040. UPSC generally asks one question about tribes in prelims and I have tried to discuss about the major tribes and tribes which are in news. Dongria Kondh Odisha: About. Forest fires are considered to be deadly and catastrophic to the flora and fauna but at the same time it can be beneficial too. Geopolitically speaking, MBS and Abu Dhabi’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed (MBZ) have over the past few years escalated their battle against political Islamist groups, including the Muslim Brotherhood. Discuss (250 words), Your email address will not be published. About Dongria Kondh tribe: The Dongria Kondh, a primitive tribal group [now termed as particularly vulnerable tribe], has been protecting more than 7 sq. It is important to note that India obtains 20 per cent of its oil from Saudi Arabia and three million Indians work there. It also acknowledged that disputes between India and Pakistan must be resolved bilaterally. One by one the spirits speak through her mouth… For now, the Modi government seems to have taken its pick. Experts opine that the current crisis, triggered by economic woes, government repression and a disputed election, is different. These are concentrated on agriculture, plants, and food-related products and operate as bans that shut competitors out of its market. Amid this crisis, about three million Venezuelans have fled the country, most since 2015. Question 3. Their vulnerable status comes from the fact that they nest in a very small number of places, and therefore any disturbance to even one nest beach could have huge repercussions on the entire population. Pakistan relies on Saudi Arabia for everything from aid and investments to military back-up and possibly clandestine assistance to develop nuclear technology. Naturally, this brings them closer to Israel, which faces a growing threat from Islamist militant groups, including Hamas, Hezbollah, and Iranian-backed forces in Syria. Population: 8,000 ; Nomenclature: Derive their name from dongar, meaning agricultural land on hill slopes. WWF-India, along with the fishermen community, has been involved in protecting the Olive ridley rookery at the mass nesting site at Rushikulaya, in Orissa, by fencing off the nesting area and patrolling it till hatching and ensuring a safe passage for the hatchlings to the sea. Indian-made goods smuggled into Pakistan include cosmetics, liquor, stainless steel utensils, ayurvedic medicines, videotapes/CDs, confectionery/cashew nuts, tea, coffee, live animals and spices. The Dongria Kondh set an example in 2013 to millions of tribal people around the world when they fought and won a case with a British mining giant that invested close to a billion dollars in a bauxite extraction operation in this mineral-rich area. The Dongria Kondh are currently holding their annual ‘Niyamraja festival’ on the picturesque hilltop of Niyamgiri. This analysis is a deep dive into India’s strategic options in West Asia- dealing largely with three nations- i.e. It is believed that Niyam Raja is the source of their essential resources. Which of the States is not covered by the Ganga Basin? Niyamgiri is a hill range spread over 250 sq.km which falls under the Rayagada and Kalahandi District in Odisha. They are carnivores, and feed mainly on jellyfish, shrimp, snails, crabs, molluscs and a variety of fish and their eggs. The crisis took a dangerous turn on January 23, 2019 when Juan Guaidó, president of the Opposition-controlled National Assembly, declared himself interim President of the oil-rich South American country, directly challenging the authority of President Nicolás Maduro, who began his second six-year term in January 2019. The tribes include the Dongria Kondh, Juanga, Lanjia Saura, Saura, Didayi, Paudi Bhuyan and Kandh. During the same period Madhya Pradesh would see a 39%, Delhi 22% and Uttar Pradesh a 25% deficit in drinking water. Guaidó says the Venezuelan Constitution allows the president of the National Assembly to take power as interim President in the absence of an elected President. It has also suggested steps including fixing a three year time period to for industry to adjust to the data storage requirement of the country with a view to develop infrastructure for promoting digital economy. Natural causes- Many forest fires start from natural causes such as lightning which set trees on fire. Also, under the South Asia Free Trade Area Agreement (SAFTA) 2004, Pakistan’s share in external trade is less than 10%, while India’s share is more than 70%. Removal of sand from Thottappally opposed. Major exports from India that would hard hit would be cotton (not carded or combed) valued at $0.273 billion, p-Xylene ($0.082 billion), polypropylene ($0.063 billion) and single yarn ($0.088 billion). About: They derive their name from dongar, meaning ‘hill’ and are the member of Khond Tribe Status: They are a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group. Economically, the ability of Saudi Arabia and the UAE to mobilise investments despite low oil prices is a huge asset in their relations with India. And the economic crisis is far from easing. Visits from desert rulers are always highly choreographed but the prince’s India trip, part of his first major tour outside the Middle East since Khashoggi’s murder, had more tense moments than usual. 2. The title of this editorial analysis is taken from an article published in the Hindu BusinessLine on the 23rd of February, 2019. India has also reportedly agreed to purchase 54 HAROP attack drones for the Indian Air Force and two airborne warning and control systems (AWACS) worth over $800 million from Israel. Trade now takes place using three channels: the official route; the illegal (informal) route, through smuggling along porous India-Pakistan land borders and also Afghanistan, which may not be accounted for in the national income; and lastly, through mainly Dubai and Singapore, which have free ports and accommodate legal agents of traders from India and Pakistan. of the sacred undisturbed forests on top of the mountain, where the proposed mining lease area of the Lanjigarh bauxite mining lease is located. The Organization was established in 1969. The first OIC Charter was adopted by the 3rd ICFM Session held in 1972. Having practically abandoned a “balancing” approach, the Modi government has, in effect, placed its bets on Israel and the Gulf monarchies, relegating relations with Iran to the side. Venezuela has been going through a turmoil for the past couple of years amid an economic meltdown and growing Opposition protests. In agriculture, commercial cooling, parts of industry, and eventually electric vehicles, there is a large potential to shift demand to times of high production of cheap renewables, at negligible cost or even economic benefit. The turtle derives its name from the colour of its shell which is olive green hue in colour. They are forest dwellers and sustain themselves from the resources of the Niyamgiri forests, practicing horticulture and shifting cultivation. These turtles are best known for their unique mass nesting called Arribada, where thousands of females come together on the same beach to lay eggs. This includes most important the Vamshadhara river. You have successfully subscribed to the newsletter. UN Secretary-General António Guterres urged Venezuelan authorities to refrain from using lethal force against protesters. Since the 1990-91 Gulf War, India has officially adopted a “balancing” approach to West Asia. Concerns about the potential for violence flared on 22nd February, 2019 when the Venezuelan Army opened fire in a village near the Brazilian border after indigenous leaders attempted to prevent them from advancing, killing a woman and her husband. Nearly 2,00,000 people attended a benefit concert in Cúcuta on 22nd February, 2019 featuring Latin pop stars, including Luis Fonsi of ”Despacito” fame. The U.S., meanwhile, imposed new sanctions on Venezuela’s state-run oil company, PDVSA — all properties of the company subject to U.S. jurisdiction was blocked and American citizens were barred from trading with the company. Pakistan’s loss from major exports to India would be much less — from dates ($0.113 billion), portland cement ($0.078 billion), other petroleum oil ($0.055 billion) and light oils and preparations ($0.028 billion). Ganga basin States stare at three-fold rise in crop failures by 2040. Besides, most constitutional institutions in the country, including the armed forces, back Mr. Maduro. Part of: GS Prelims and GS-I – Society In news. Its highest point is the mountain known as, The deep reverence and respect that the Dongria have for their, To make the work of the body more efficient the, One which functions at the level of clan or, The management of each clan is then done according to a more, Each group of people are dedicated to address the religious and political matters of the, It presides and solves disputes related to. Mr. Guaidó in January 2019, invoked articles of the Constitution to assume interim presidency and denounced Mr. Maduro as a usurper, arguing his 2018 re-election was illegitimate. The Niyamgiri hill range in South-West Odisha State is home to the Dongria Kondh tribe. If the flexibility of the power system is not swiftly increased, within a few years India will reach technical and economic limits to the growth of renewables. 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