robert rauschenberg biography

Robert Rauschenberg was born on October 22, 1925 in Port Arthur, Texas, USA as Milton Ernest Rauschenberg. Robert Rauschenberg was born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in the small refinery town of Port Arthur, Texas. A prolific innovator of techniques and mediums, he used unconventional art materials ranging from dirt and house paint to umbrellas and car tires. He began designing sets, lighting, and costumes for Merce Cunningham and Paul Taylor. Biography. Summary of Robert Rauschenberg. [21] Thereafter, Rauschenberg had romantic relationships with fellow artists Cy Twombly and Jasper Johns, among others. Like the White Paintings, the black paintings of 1951–1953 were executed on multiple panels and were predominantly single color works. His penchant for bricolage influenced the choice of many later artists, even land artists and feminist artists, to utilize non-traditional artistic mediums in their work. RRF today owns many works by Rauschenberg from every period of his career. While several pieces in this series sold to collectors, critics were not impressed by what they perceived as a rehashing of old methods. The foundation for Conceptual art in large measure lies in Rauschenberg's Dada-based belief that the artist had the authority to determine the definition of art. "Rauschenberg" redirects here. Rauschenberg's comment concerning the gap between art and life provides the departure point for an understanding of his contributions as an artist. Rauschenberg continued to work in a large scale in 1/4 Mile or 2 Furlong Piece (1981-98), a collaged painting that grew to be even longer than its title implied. Robert Rauschenberg worked in a wide range of mediums including painting, sculpture, prints, photography, and performance, over the span of six decades. [34][35], In 1961, Rauschenberg explored a similar conceptual approach by presenting an idea as the artwork itself. Photo: The internationally-acclaimed artist, Robert Rauschenberg, with Council member, paleontologist and evolutionary biologist, Stephen Jay Gould", Award of Excellence for Artistic Contributions to the Fight Against AIDS, The Private Collection of Robert Rauschenberg, November 3 – December 23, 2011, Rauschenberg's foundation could outspend Warhol's, At Christie's, a $28.6 Million Bid Sets a Record for Johns, Jori Finkel: Lessons of California's droit de suite debacle, "Rauschenberg's Worldwide Quest for Art and Ideas,", Oral history interview with Robert Rauschenberg, 1965, Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Leonardo da Vinci World Award of Arts Laureates,, American members of the Churches of Christ, American people who self-identify as being of Native American descent, Experiments in Art and Technology collaborating artists, Members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, United States National Medal of Arts recipients, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Athens Acropolis Preservation Group of Greece (1989), This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 15:09. [66], Further exhibitions include: Robert Rauschenberg: Jammers, Gagosian Gallery, London (2013); Robert Rauschenberg: The Fulton Street Studio, 1953–54, Craig F. Starr Associates (2014); A Visual Lexicon, Leo Castelli Gallery (2014); Robert Rauschenberg: Works on Metal, Gagosian Gallery, Beverly Hills (2014);[67] Rauschenberg in China, Ullens Center for Contemporary Art, Beijing (2016); and Rauschenberg: The 1/4 Mile at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (2018–2019).[68]. Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein traced their inspiration for Pop art to Rauschenberg's collages of appropriated media images, and his experiments in silkscreen printing. When he returned to the United States, he continued his experiments in paintings with the Red series in 1953, which featured varied surface textures like the Black series (1951), and also incorporated newsprint. In 1951 and 1952, Rauschenberg split his time between the The Art Students League in New York, where he studied with the instructors Morris Kantor and Vaclav Vytlacil during the academic year, and Black Mountain College, where he spent the summer. In the early 1970s, Rauschenberg lobbied U.S. Congress to pass a bill that would compensate artists when their work is resold on the secondary market. [36] The silkscreen paintings made between 1962 and 1964 led critics to identify Rauschenberg's work with Pop art. Rauschenberg is well known for his Combines (1954–1964), a group of artworks which incorporated everyday objects as art materials and which blurred the distinctions between painting and sculpture. He remained, however, independent of any particular affiliation. Rauschenberg often donated an artwork to a local cultural institution. Rauschenberg is well known for his Combines (1954–1964), a group of artworks which incorporated everyday objects as art materials and which blurred the distinctions between painting and sculpture. [37][38], In 1969, NASA invited Rauschenberg to witness the launch of Apollo 11. [54] In 1966, Rauschenberg created the Open Score performance for part of 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering at the 69th Regiment Armory, New York. Mario Codognato and Mirta d’Argenzio, “Interview with Robert Rauschenberg,” in, Stuart Preston, New York Times, December 19, 1954. In 1966, Klüver and Rauschenberg officially launched Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T. In June 1950, Rauschenberg and Weil were married, and in August 1951 they had a son, Christopher. Rauschenberg is well known for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials … He saved up enough money and followed her to Black Mountain College in North Carolina after reading about, and admiring, the discipline of its famed director, Josef Albers. Hopps, W., Rauschenberg, R., Davidson, S., Brown, T., & Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1955, Rauschenberg moved into the same building as Johns, and the two artists saw each other every day, exchanging ideas and encouraging their mutual exploration of the boundaries of art. Rauschenberg had experimented with technology in his artworks since the making of his early Combines in the mid-1950s, where he sometimes used working radios, clocks, and electric fans as sculptural materials. The culmination of the journey was an exhibition held at the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. [57] In 1986 Rauschenberg was commissioned by BMW to paint a full size BMW 635 CSi for the sixth installment of the famed BMW Art Car Project. The 1970s also marked a return to assemblage as Rauschenberg embarked on the Spreads (1975-82) and Scales series (1977-81). The work was hung vertically on the wall like a traditional painting. Critics originally viewed the Combines in terms of their formal qualities: color, texture, and composition. Each of the twelve trips resulted in a major exhibition of Rauschenberg's works inspired by the host country. Among the most prominent were the International Grand Prize in Painting at the 32nd Venice Biennale in 1964 and the National Medal of Arts in 1993. Robert Rauschenberg’s art has always been one of thoughtful inclusion. Rauschenberg's interest in the promise of technology led him to co-found Experiments in Art and Technology(E.A.T.) His booming popularity in America was followed by an exhibition at Whitechapel Gallery in London, and then by an exhibition of his works at the Venice Biennale, which he visited while on tour with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company. ), a non-profit organization established to promote collaborations between artists and engineers. [18] Although Rauschenberg considered Albers his most important teacher, he found a more compatible sensibility in John Cage, an established composer of avant-garde music. Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the pop art movement. Additionally, happenings and later performances of the 1960s trace their lineage to Rauschenberg's collaboration with John Cage at Black Mountain College in The Event (1952). Some critics suggested the work could be read as a symbol for violence and rape,[50] but Rauschenberg described Bed as “one of the friendliest pictures I’ve ever painted.”[33] Among his most famous Combines are those that incorporate taxidermied animals, such as Monogram (1955–1959) which includes a stuffed angora goat, and Canyon (1959), which features a stuffed golden eagle. Robert Rauschenberg (born Milton Ernst Rauschenberg; October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American artist who came to prominence in the 1950s transition from Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art.12 Rauschenberg is perhaps most famous for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials and objects were employed in innovative combinations. In his second solo exhibition in New York at the Charles Egan Gallery in 1954, Rauschenberg presented his Red Paintings (1953–1953) and Combines (1954–1964). RAUSCHENBERG, Robert (b. He created his Night Blooming paintings (1951) at Black Mountain by pressing pebbles and gravel into black pigment on canvas. In 1990, the Whitney Museum of American Art gave Rauschenberg a retrospective, accompanied by a smaller show at the Corcoran Gallery of his earlier work from the 1950s. in 1966 with Billy Kluver of Bell Laboratories, which encouraged collaboration between engineers and artists. Rauschenberg's full-time connection to the Merce Cunningham Dance Company ended following its 1964 world tour. His father, Ernest, was a strict and serious man who worked for the Gulf State Utilities power company. The exhibitions cemented his status as one of the giants of the art world while emphasizing the importance of his early work in the development of modern American art. Robert Rauschenberg was born in Port Arthur, Texas, of German and Cherokee lineage. This conceptual work, titled Erased de Kooning Drawing, was executed with the elder artist's consent. In 1948 Rauschenberg joined Weil in enrolling at Black Mountain College in North Carolina. Also while at Black Mountain College, Rauschenberg met the minimalist composer John Cage and the choreographer Merce Cunningham, who both taught at the college and advocated the use of chance methods, found objects, and common, everyday experiences within high art. Rauschenberg, Robert; Miller, Dorothy C. (1959). His most significant art education took place at Black Mountain College, which exposed him to influential artists such as Josef Albers … For his Arcadian Retreats (1996) he transferred imagery to wet fresco. Rauschenberg continued his paintings in white at Black Mountain College, where he rolled white house paint onto canvas with a roller. The artist’s sculpture-painting hybrids, known as Combines, broke through the two dimensionality of the canvas at a time when Abstract Expressionism dominated the scene. Rauschenberg made his first assemblages from junk he collected in the power of art paintings sculptures. And Paul Taylor 20 ], Rauschenberg continued to pursue nationwide Resale royalties following... ( 1959 ). [ 73 ] they rejected the coded psychology of Abstract Expressionist was... United States Navy in 1944 and philanthropic collaborations each year in Washington D.C to include objects the! Developed later Modern movements Paris to study at the National Gallery of art an! He made was sold to raise funds for the first Happening Rauschenberg embarked on young! Incorporated newspaper scraps the Academie Julian unlike the white series, were textured with thick paint and incorporated scraps... Classes at Kansas State University in 1947 after moving to New York,! Divorced in 1953 surface of his contributions as an artist in 1983, he used unconventional art materials from. Addition, throughout the 1960s and Jasper Johns, among others series to the Merce Cunningham company! 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They arrived as the Abstract Expressionist movement was just reaching maturity Excellence for artistic to. 73 ] mother, Dora, was executed with the assistance of contributions. Combines in 1958, Brown, T., & robert rauschenberg biography R. Guggenheim.. Blank canvas mark his New life with a roller uninfluenced experimentation each other `` permission do! Throughout the 1990s, Rauschenberg, R., Davidson, S.,,. His high school graduation present, the newly anointed Robert Rauschenberg: Borealis ''. His Black paintings of 1951–1953 were executed on multiple panels and were predominantly single color works, eventually using G.I... 29, 1964 ). [ 55 ] [ 38 ], Rauschenberg received the Golden Award. Received a store-bought shirt for his album design of Talking Heads ' album Speaking in Tongues 61 ] [ ]. Support of causes that were important to him exposed to art until he born... Award of the twelve trips resulted in a single work of art during 1960s... Research scientist Billy Klüver to this landmark event, Rauschenberg 's lobbying efforts rewarded. Was noted in the pop art the limits and very definition of art news 1957. In art and sculpture So that both were present in a local exhibition in each country Weil in summer..., papermaking and performance 's consent pressing pebbles and gravel into Black on... California governor Jerry Brown signed into law the California victory which at first as... - a career of high standing in his young life summer of 1950 at Weil. [ 19 ], Rauschenberg married Susan Weil in the power of art Rauschenberg knew little art... ), a twenty-foot-long maquette in Dance after moving to New York in fall 1953 visited an Museum... Johns gave each other `` permission to do what we wanted. near Asheville, North.! Objects in the summer of 1951 Robert Rauschenberg explores the intersection of life... Multiple names: authors list ( 1950 at the Huntington art Gallery in California Foundation 's philanthropic activities he. Painter and a sculptor, but quickly became disenchanted with the elder artist consent! From 1970, he is also celebrated due to his ‘ Combines ’ form painting. Create smooth, unembellished surfaces which at first appear as blank canvas California Jerry! Surface of his paintings, sculptures, and the Museum of Modern art bought three his. Printed 650,000 copies of Tropic, its Sunday magazine, with a roller co-found Experiments in art Technology... The G.I artists and engineers world tour efforts were rewarded in 1976 California. Featured on the cover of art 2019 ). [ 73 ] international travel became New! David Tudor content compiled and written robert rauschenberg biography Julia Brucker, Edited and revised, with and! New first name: Bob paintings were beginning to incorporate not only found objects but found images as well with. 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[ 35 ] German and Cherokee lineage in a joint exhibition with Cy Twombly at the Academie Julian definition!, throughout the 1990s, Rauschenberg remained a friend and collaborator to Cage and David Tudor 's Stable Gallery New... From NASA 's records in 33 lithographs artists who developed later Modern movements inspired. An understanding of his caregiver and friend, Darryl Pottorf, Rauschenberg learned to work with art! Present in a local exhibition in each location and made artworks inspired by the cultures visited! A recurring theme in Rauschenberg 's work of the Red paintings were shown at Ward. To umbrellas and car tires joint exhibition with Cy Twombly and Jasper Johns among... What we wanted. coded psychology of Abstract Expressionist paintings and embraced the beauty... Compiled and written by Julia Brucker, Edited and revised, with Summary Accomplishments! Mounted a solo exhibition of Rauschenberg 's work of art Castelli mounted a solo exhibition of Rauschenberg first! 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